I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled “Social and Cultural Changes Among Urali Tribe.” submitted to Mahatma Gandhi University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology, is a record of original research work done by me, under the supervision and guidance of Mr. Deepu P.Thomas, Supervising Teacher, School of Social Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University , and that it has not formed before the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associate ship or any other similar titles.
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Social and Cultural Changes Among Urali Tribe.” submitted to Mahatma Gandhi University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology, is a record of original research done by Ms. Nimmy Thomas during the period of his study 2012-2014, in the School of Social Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam under my supervision and guidance and that the thesis has not formed before the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associate ship or other similar titles.
Dr. Rammohan K.T,
School of Social Sciences,
Mahatma Gandhi University.
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Social and Cultural Changes Among Urali Tribe.” submitted to Mahatma Gandhi University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology, is a record of original research done by Ms. Nimmy Thomas during the period of his study 2012- 2014, in the School of Social Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam under my supervision and guidance and that the thesis has not formed before the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associate ship or other similar titles.
School of Social Sciences,
Mahatma Gandhi University.
The M.A dissertation writing process is a journey which takes time to complete. I was accompanied by an awesome group of people who supported me in multiple ways. The first group of people I would like to acknowledge is Urali of Poojar who contributed to my dissertation. I value the time, knowledge and experiences they shared with me, interaction today is full of joy, but also full of ambiguity and I also enormously touched by Uralis’ openness and willing to share such personal information with me.
It is my pleasure to acknowledge the helping hands extended to me in bringing out this humble work. I take this opportunity to express my sincere and deep sense of gratitude to my Supervising teacher Mr. Deepu P.Thomas for his constant support, encouragement, suggestion and guidance throughout my project work and help me to complete successfully.
I am grateful to our Director, Dr. Rammohan K.T for providing me all the facilities available in the department for my dissertation. I also convey my special thanks to all the faculty member of the department, for their constant suggestion, clear and valuable advices.
I would also like to thank the entire office staff members and my entire friends especially Jo, Harsha Oomen, Deepu Chettan, Shynu Chettan, Anil Chettan, Remya Chechy, Archana Chechy, Lintu Sebastian, Bibin, Jomon, Vidhu, Vijitha, Sreekanth, Anu, Sunil, Rakesh, Siji, and Seethal for helping me in my work. I express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents, family members for their kind invaluable encouragement and moral support throughout my work.
- INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
Social Transformation is the process by which an individual alters the socially ascribed social status of their parents into a socially achieved status for themselves. It refers to large scale social change as in cultural reforms or transformations. The first occurs with the individual, the second with the social system.
1.1.1 The Individual
This is different from social reproduction and social mobility because instead of looking at the intergenerational mobility or the measure of the changes in social status which occur from the parents’ to the children’s generation, social transformation focuses on how an individual can alter the class culture to which they feel aligned. One socially transforms in three steps: by associational embracement, associational distancing, and the distinct presentation of self.
Social transformation is considered an interpersonal negotiation because it requires that the individual have their social position be validated by others for transformation. It is a reciprocal relationship in which people have to be embraced and correctly identified with the cultural expectations of their particular class membership. This is the only way that persons can move from their own ascribed status to a new achieved status.
1.1.2 The Social System
Social transformation in this context requires a shift in collective consciousness of a society – local, state, national or global – so that reality is refined by consensus. This often happens by external stimulus and sometimes intentionally. Scientific discoveries have triggered many social transformations throughout our history as have religious and royal edicts.
Cities which have reinvented themselves serve of examples of conscious transformations of a social type resulting in reinvigorated and revitalized populations, economic prosperity and restored civic pride. Some countries have achieved these intentional social transformations, one such example being South Africa in 1994 when it ended apartheid.
Social transformations are such when they sustain over time where attitudes and values are held in a completely new context (or paradigm) based upon different assumptions and beliefs.
- To revise studies among Urali through Thurston, A. A. D Luiz and L. A Krishna Iyer.
- To understand early Religious Practices of Urali Tribes.
- To understand land use pattern in Urali Tribes
- To find out the settlement organization in Urali Tribes
- To Understand social and cultural changes among Urali Tribes
The present work is intended to study about the Urali community, which is one of the primitive tribal groups in Kerala. In the present context, holding development and other changes as necessary factor, Government and non-government organizations intervening their life. It can be considered as a part of modernisation. But this process of modernisation imposes a new social life in their community. The fact is that some people accept this new social life and some others not. As a counter effect of this process, nowadays they are at the verge of losing their socio-cultural heritages. We could analyze the socio-cultural heritages which have been practiced by Urali community through Anthropological methodologies. Whether these heritages are still existing or vanished by the process of Modernization? It is still a question.
- AREA OF STUDY
The present study conducted in the Manamel Scheduled Colony located in the Poonjar Thekkekara Panchayat in Kottayam district. Urali tribes are mainly located in places of Poonjar, Teekoy, Mavadi, Edakkara etc. it is 2000 feet high from sea level. There are around thirtyUrali families in this region. This is an eco-friendly area which abounds in hills and streams. The Uralis are very close to nature.
Observation is the major method used by a researcher in the field for collecting data. I took note on the environment of the study, generating data on the settlement pattern, the physical characteristics, infrastructure and habits of the people. I was also able to collect data on some of their customs and practices that took place during the marriage and death ceremonies. Moreover observation was used an initial method in understanding the daily life of Uralis.
1.4.2 Participant Observation
Participant Observation is where field worker lives in a local community and involves him or herself in many activities as possible in the normal round of activities (Plattner 1989).
After building up a good rapport with the Uralis, I was able to participate in some of their activities like cooking, discussions and so on. This not only made me feel at home but also made them feel more comfortable with me.
1.4.3 Non-Participant Observation
Uralis’ economic activity and such other details were collected by non-participant observation.
I was able to take interviews of the Uralis either in their houses or in their work places and it was specifically a key informant interview. The interviews had both open-ended and closed-ended questions related to my research topic. Most of the times it was open-ended question since the conversation was informal. I made note of all these answers in my field note, which provided me with essential data for study.
1.4.5 Secondary Sources
Secondary sources of data were generated from books, articles and online journals to substantiate the study.
1.5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the article ‘Dermatoglyphic affinities of the tribes and castes of Nilgiri Hills’ M.R Chakravartti and D.P Mukherjee described about Urali tribes. It is a comparative dermatoglyphic study on the ten endogamous groups of the Nilgiri district. ‘The Mapping of the Adivasi Social: Colonial Anthropology and Adivasis’ is an article written by Bhangya Bhukya. This study gives a detailed account of colonial anthropology and tribes (Adivasis). Sabu M Simon, T Selvin Norman and Kuru Suresh and some other scholars conducted an extensive study in 2011 on ethnomedicinal plants used by Uralies inhabiting in the catchment area of Idukki reservoir in Idukki District, Kerala. Like any other ethnic groups, Uralis are also rich in the traditional knowledge passed from generation to generation through the word of mouth.
‘Tribal Religion: Religious Beliefs and Practices among the Santals’is a work done by Joseph Troisi. Beginning with a critique of well-known theories of religions (those of Tylor, Durkheim, Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown, and others), Troisi establishes his own goal as that of showing “how Santal religion, as manifested and expressed in its beliefs and practices, contributes to the existence and maintenance of Santal society. The theoretical location of the book is therefore classical, mainline British social Anthropology. The book covers a wide range of topics such as relevance of tribal religion, institution of priesthood, mythology/philosophy, rites and rituals, taboos, nature of faith and worship, and some aspects of indigenous healing tradition. Research papers on religious conversion have also found places in the book. The book also takes into account the interface between religion, space, health and politics. Most of the studies revolved around the indigenous Adi religion, however cases of other religion have also found place. ‘Transformation of Tribal Society: Integration vs Assimilation’ is an article written by Singh K S. This paper attempts to set the current changes taking place in tribal society in India. Contested Modernities in the “Tribal Zone”: The Post-Colonial State, Adivasi Politics and the Making of Local Modernity in the Northern Nilgiris (South India) had written by Ulrich Demmer. In this study he talks about local adivasi communities and imaginations of modernity. Rather than an arid dichotomy of tradition and modernity we are dealing here with a specific form of an alternative or local modernity. This study analyses how this particular modernity is constructed through abroad spectrum of activities ranging from dominance and cultural hegemony to cohabitation down to everyday and cultural resistance.
AREA AND PEOPLE
Ethnographic field research involves the study of groups and people as they go about their everyday lives. Carrying out such research involves two distinct activities. First, the ethnographer enters into a social setting and gets to know the people involved in it; usually, the setting is not previously known in an intimate way. The ethnographer participates in the daily routines of this setting, develops ongoing relations with the people in it, and observes all the while what is going on. Indeed, the term “participant-observation” is often used to characterize this basic research approach. But, second, the ethnographer writes down in regular, systematic ways what she observes and learns while participating in the daily rounds of life of others. Thus the researcher creates an accumulating written record of these observations and experiences. These two interconnected activities comprise the core of ethnographic research: Firsthand participation in some initially unfamiliar social world and the production of written accounts of that world by drawing upon such participation. (Robert et.al.)
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. The district has its headquarters at Kottayam town, located at 9.36° N and 76.17° E. According to the 1991 census, it is the first district to achieve 100% literacyrate in the whole of India. On 27th September 2008, Kottayam district also became the first tobacco free districts in India.
Bordered by the WesternGhats on the east and the Vembanad Lake and paddyfields of Kuttanad on the west, Kottayam has many unique characteristics. Panoramic backwater stretches, lush paddy fields, highlands, hills and hillocks, rubber plantations and places associated with many legends given Kottayam District the enviable title: The land of letters, legends, latex and lakes. The district is 15.35% urbanized.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Kottayam district has a total area of 2208 sq. km. The district is naturally divided into high land, midland and lowland, the bulk being constituted by the midland regions. Meenachil and Kanjirappally Taluks have high land and midland areas while Kottayam, Changanassery and VaikomTaluks have midland and lowland areas. Kanjirappally and Meenachil Taluks have Laterite soil, whereas Vaikom Taluk, part of Changanassery and Kottayam Taluks has alluvial soil. The district has no coastal area.
Classification of Area under Land Utilization
(Source: Agricultural Statistics 2001-02)
Classification of Land
|Total (in Hectares)||8141|
|Non Agricultural uses||26557|
|Barren & uncultivable land||2031|
|Permanent pastures and other grazing land||1|
|Land under misc. tree crops||119|
|Fallow other than current fallow||2259|
|Net area sown||172815|
|Area sown more than once||48134|
The important rivers of the district are the Meenachil River, the Muvattupuzha River and the Manimala River. The 78 km. long Meenachil River flows through the Taluks of Meenachil, Vaikom and Kottayam. It has a catchment area of 1272 km2 and utilizable water resource of 1110 mm3. The River is formed by several streams originating from the Western Ghats in Idukki district. At Erattupetta, Poonjar River also joins it, takes a sharp turn and flows towards the west. At Kondur, it is joined by the Chittar and at Lalam it receives the Payapparathodu and flows in a south-west direction till it reaches Kottayam. Here it branches into several streams before emptying into the Vembanad Lake. The important towns in the basin are Pala, Poonjar, Ettumanoor and Kottayam. Meenachil Medium Irrigation project is having a net ayacut of 9960 hectares, 155 sq.km catchment areas and water spread area of 228 hectares.
The Muvattupuzha River originates from Idukki district, flows through VaikomTaluk and empties into the Vembanad Lake. The most important town in the basin is Vaikom, the famous pilgrim centre.
The Manimala River flows through Kanjirappally and ChanganasseryTaluks. The Chittar joins it on its course further down the west as it flows to Alappuzha district. The important town in the basin is Mundakkayam.
The district has a tropical climate with an oppressive hot season in the plains and plenty of rainfalls throughout. The hot season from March to May, is followed by the south-west monsoon from June to September. The months of October and November constitute the post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season, when day temperature increases gradually and the heat is nearly as intense as in summer. The months of December to February form the north – east monsoon. Rain ceases early in January. The district normally gets an annual average rain fall of 3130.33mm.
ART & CULTURE
Kottayam occupies a prominent place in the cultural map of Kerala.
KunchanNambiar, the father of Thullal, a popular temple art form, is supposed to have lived at Kidangoor. UnnineeliSandesam, the exquisite Malayalam poetry work, is supposed to have been written by one of the Vadakkumkur Rajas. The Christian Missionaries enriched Malayalam literature by their valuable contributions in the 18th and 19th Centuries. VarthamanaPusthakam (1778) written by ParemmakkalThomaKathanar, on a travel to Rome, is the first travelogue in Malayalam. The first autobiography in Malayalam by VaikomPachuMoothathu was published from Kottayam in 1870.
In the concluding decades of the 19th Century and the beginning of the 20th Century, Kottayam shot into limelight as the nerve centre of all literary and cultural activities in the erstwhile Travancore State. Late KottarathilSankunny, Kandathil Varghese Mappilai, Kerala VarmaValiyakoiThampuran, K.C. MammenMappilai, KattakkayathilCheriyanMappilai, Vadakkumkoor Raja RajaVarma, KaroorNeelakandaPillai, VaikomMuhammedBasheer, D.C. Kizhakkemuri and AbhayaDev are few names, in the category of outstanding dignitaries and celebrities, worth mentioning, who had made very valuable, substantial and individual contributions in their own way to the cultural and social milieu. Eminent writers PonkunnamVarkey, Vaikom Chandra Sekharan Nair, distinguished Poet Mahakavi Pala Narayanan Nair, illustrious Kathakali artist KudamaloorKarunakaran Nair, world renowned Booker prize winner Arundhathi Roy, accomplished film actor Mammootty, and talented film director Jayaraj are some other notable personalities who all hail from Kottayam district. Renowned music director L. P. R. Varma (Late) also hailed from Kottayam.
Kottayam stands first in the field of Education, Mass Communication, Printing and Book Publication. The significant role played by MalayalaManorama&Bhashaposhini and Deepika for the cultural and literary development is of immense importance. There are many printing presses and book publishing companies in Kottayam. The SPCS, a unique co-operation venture of authors and writers was started in the year 1945. Prominent publishers D.C. Books started publication from here in the year 1974. Kottayam is the headquarters of Current Books since the year 1977. It is estimated that 70% of the State’s book publication takes place in Kottayam.
As of 2001 India census, Kottayam Urban Agglomeration had a population of 172,878, while Kottayam district had a population of 19, 52,901. Males constitute 62% of the population and females make up 38%. Population growth in the district is in a diminishing trend and it had a decadal population growth rate of 6.5 per cent compared to 9.35 per cent for Kerala during 1991-2001 periods.
Kottayam District is ranked 1st in literacy with a percentage of 95.9 compared to 90.92% for Kerala State and 65.38% for India (2001 census). It is ranked 10th in population, as well as in area among the districts in Kerala.
STUDY AREA (POONJAR )
Located at 09°40′27.7″N 76°48′31.2″E, Poonjar is a small town in the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India. Before the independence of India, Poonjar had been the capital of the Poonjar Koyikkal Swaroopam or Edavaka. Pala, Kanjirappally and Erattupetta are the nearest cities of Poonjar. Geographically Poonjar is divided into PoonjarThekkekara, PoonjarVadakkekkara and PoonjarNadubhagam villages. It is secular in nature. There are so many temples, churches and mosques in Poonjar and Erattupetta. Two main tributaries of Meenachil river originate in Poonjar hills and join at Erattupetta. There are numerous waterfalls and rivulets in the hills. Kunnonny, Adivaram, Pathambuzha, Kaippally are some of the nearest villages.
The present study is conducted in the Manamel Scheduled Colony located in the PoonjarThekkekaraPanchayat. It is 2000 feet high from sea level. This is an eco-friendly area which abounds in hills and streams.
TRIBES IN KERALA
In Kerala, there are 36 tribal communities, and most of these tribes live in the districts of Palakad, Kottayam, Idukki, Kollam, Thiruvanthapuram, Kozhikode, Kasargode and Wayand. They are short and medium in structure with dark brown complexion. Their traditional occupations were gathering and collection of forest products like honey, wood, incha, wax etc.
Tribals in Kerala (Adivasis of Kerala) are the indigenous inhabitants in the southern Indian state of Kerala. The largest part of the tribal people of Kerala lives in the forests and mountains of Western Ghats, adjoining Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.According to the 2001 census of India, the Scheduled Tribe population in Kerala is 3,64,189. Wayanad has the highest number of tribals (1, 36,062), Idukki (50973) and Palakkad (39665) districts are the next two that make the lion portion of the native tribal people groups in the state. The Paniya (Paniyar) are the largest of the 35 major tribes.
Tribal groups who are food-gatherers (without any habit of agricultural practice), with withdrawing population and very low or diminutive literacy rates can be called as Primitive Tribes. Cholanaikkans, Kurumbas, Kattunaikans, Kadars and Koragas are the five primitive tribal groups in Kerala. They represent nearly 5% of the total tribal population in the State. Cholanaikkans can be said as the most primitive of them and bring into being only in the Malappuram District. Only a handful of families are living in the Mancheri hills of Nilambur forest division. Kattunaikans, another lower-hill community interconnected to Cholanaikkans, are for the most part seen in Wayanad district and some in Malappuram and Kozhikode districts. Kadar population is establishing in Thrissur and Palakkad districts. Kurumbas are living in the Attappady Block of Palakkad district. The Koraga habitat is in the plain areas of Kasaragod district.
Tribals in Kerala are living on the hill ranges, for the most part on the Western Ghat, bordering Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. As a natural border, the mountain has brushwood in Kerala as well as in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The tribal on the Kerala hills are only listed here.
The term tribe has been derived from a middle English term TRIBUZ, which has a Latin root. The term means three divisions. The early Romans were categorized in these divisions. Thus the meaning of term varies from on nations to another. According to Roman this is a political division, Whereas Greeks take into consideration as equal with fraternity and Irish history According to Roman this is a political division, where as Greeks take into consideration as equal with fraternity and Irish history depicts the term as family or community having the same surname. Etymologically the term stands as follows,
Group of primitive or barbarous clans under recognized chief (Oxford Encyclopedic Dictionary, Vol.3, 1983)
According to Perry a tribe is a social group of people speaking a common dialect inhabiting a common territory. The tribal people are characterized by their culture and identity but he has not written about their cultural unity. Rivers (1932) has considered the term on the basis of law and justice and common welfare purposes of the community. He has not given any due consideration on their consideration in a particular area. Hence he has indicated that the members of a tribe have a single government and act together for some common purposes.Dictionary of Anthropology (Winick 1957) generally defined tribe as follows –“Tribe is a social group, usually with a definite area of living, dialect, cultural homogeneity and unifying social organizations. It may include several sub-groups as sibs or villages’ tribe ordinarily has a leader and may have a common ancestor and patron deity. The families or small communities making up the tribe area linked together through social, religious family or blood relation”. Kroeber (1948) conceives tribe as a small isolated and a close knit society where both societies and cultural aspects are largely organized on the basis of kinship. The Imperial Gazetteer of India as early as 1891 first defined the tribe’ A tribe is a collection of families bearing a common name, speaking a common dialect, occupying or possessing to occupy a common territory and is endogamous, though originally it might have been so. Prof. T.C Das (1953) considers that A tribe generally has a common name, common habit, a common language, a common culture and a feeling of unity among its members as against members other tribes.According to L.P Vidyarthi “A Tribe is generally defined as a social group, usually with a definite area of living, dialect, cultural homogeneity and unifying social organizations. It may include several sub-groups as a sibs or villages.” The term tribe commonly signifies a group of people speaking common language, observing uniform rules of social organizations and working together for common purposes.Anthropologically, A tribe is a social group the members of which live in a common territory, have a common dialet,uniform social organizations and possess cultural homogeneity having a common ancestor, political organizations and religious pattern.
Prof. D.N Majumdar (1961) has given the most acceptable definition on in the Indian context .He criticizes the above definition by pointing out that the caste possessed almost the same character. According to him “A tribe is a social group with territorial affiliation, endogamous with no specialization of functions, ruled by tribal officers, hereditary or otherwise, united in language or dialect recognizing social distance from other tribes or castes but without any stigma attached in case of a caste structure, following tribal traditions ,beliefs, customs, illiberal of naturalization of ideas from alien sources; above all conscious of a homogeneity of ethnic or territorial integration”
According to Morris Any of various system of social organization comprising several local villages, bands, districts lineages, or other group and sharing a common ancestry, language, cultural, and name”. Morris also notes that a tribe is a group of persons with a common occupation, interest, or habit and a large family.
Urali is the combination of the words Ur(land)and Al(people).It denotes that they are people of the land.Conceptuallly it must be interesting to note that thousands of place name in the Dravidian South India and in ‘Ur’.In the madras census report, 1891, the Urali are described as “a caste of agricultural labourers found chifly in the districts of Madura and trichinopoly.The word Urali means a ruler of a village. Like the Ambalakkarans, they trace their descent from one Matturaja, and the only subdivision returned by any number of mutracha.They also asserts that were formerly employed as soldiers. In the wayand there isasection of kurumbas called Uralikurumbas,and it is not importable that these Urali of the Tamil country are an offshoot of the great kurumbas race.”
Uralis are short, long headed and with medium to broad nasal profile. The face is long and narrow and can be included in the negrito stock. The racial composition of the population of the stare through the age has been studied by cultural anthropologists and several theories, speculative though interesting, have been propounded. The negrito element is pointed out as the earliest racial strain in the population of Kerala as of south India in general. Such hill tribes as the Kadar, the kanikkar, the malapandarams,themuthuvans,theullatans,theUrali, the paniyasetc..,who live in the forests of Kerala state even today are said to be representives of the Negrito type. Most of these tribe’s have curly hair, black skin, round head and broad nose and wear the comb in common with similar type in other parts of the world.
HISTORY OF URALI
The name indicates the ruler of a country or village (Ur a country or village and ali a ruler).The records of recent history have nothing to how as to their origin or the locality they occupied. This term is not specially confined to the class of people inhabiting parts of Travancore, but also refers to the people of the same denomination found chiefly in the districts of Madura and Trichinopoly. Mr. Edgar Thurston speakes of another class of people of the same name who inhabit the jungles of Dinbhum,(Coimbatore District) at an altitude of 1,800 ft..This later class referred to, call them Urali or Irulas. They speak a patois of mixed Tamil and Canarese and have a number of exogamous sept;but the class of Urali whom we meet with in the hills of Travancore speak a kind of corrupt Malayalam. The true origin of these hill men seems to be lost in obscurity. But judging from ethnological data and comparing our Urali with those of Coimbatore, Madura, Tinnevelly and Trichinopoly, we may be justified in stating that the Travancore Urali are not generically different from the Urali that inhabit the hilly recesses of those districts. Traditional accounts state that “they were the dependents of the kings of Madura and that their duty was to hold umbrellas in times of state processions. In ancient times many of the parts now included in the Thodupuzha Taluk belonged to the kingdoms of Madura. Once when the king came to Neriyamagalam, the ancestors of these Urali are said to have accompanied him and were probably left there to rule that locality” 
They are at present, found in the Cardamom Hills, in Aladi, Ponpara, Mongathara, Kochezhapperappu Valia Ezhapperappu, Thodupuzha, Velampam, Kurakkanat, Kunnanat, Mannukat, Kalanat and Periyar.
The following description of Mala Adiyars of the lower Periyar valley by Mr.A.M Sawyer is equally applicable to the Urali: – “In stature and physique, colour, facial appearance, dress, habits, language, customs, and manners, the mala Adiyars or Mountain Slaves of the Lower Periyar valley resemble the Uralis of Neriyamaganalam more than any other of the eight principal hill tribes inhabiting the hill-forest of Travancore. Of middle height, they are fairly thick set, of dark-brown colour, with brownish-to –black eyes, curly hair, flat nose and of protruding upper lips, preceding for head, and chins, prominent cheek bones, and generally smooth faces. Both men and women wear the hair long; either loose or knotted on the top of the head”. Men generally allow their heir to grow, the face alone being occasionally shaven. They are tolerably cleanly and observe regularity in bating.
Dress and Ornaments
Men wrap themselves with two pieces of cloth, one the upper and another and a longer piece for the lower part of the body, reaching from the hip to the knees. Women too adopt bifurcation in dress. They are tolerably trim in their appearance.Male wear rings of brass, sometimes of silver on fingers and toes. Wreaths of beads from fifteen to thirty in number,are worn on the neck as an ornament. Women wear what is known as katumani composed of rings of brass or lead. .
Food and Drink
Rice and meat form the chief articles of food. The paddy they raise by cultivation barely sustains them for six months in the year, a large portion of it having to be exchanged for clothing, salt and other commodities from the low country. For the remaining half of the year, the Urali are forced to live upon what they can get the forest, whether in the form of flesh or in the form of roots and fruits. The buffalo and the elephant are held in great respect, even the very approach of the former being most religiously avoided. They sometimes, but very rarely, keep cows for their milk. They rear fowls which also serve them a good deal in the absences of corn. The morning drink or kadi is essential, but tea supplemented by roots and fruits seems to have displaced it.
The choice of the bride and bridegroom is left to the parents. No Tali is used as the marriage tie. The elders of the bridegrooms family, with cloth and necklace, repair to the brides house, signify their intention, give the bride a cloth and ornaments and take her home with them. The bride thenceforward becomes a wife. For every girl given away in marriage one has to be taken in return. According to this customary usage families suffering from a plethora of girls have to take back as many daughters-in-law as they have girls to dispose of ,with the result, that an Urali has sometimes to take in six or seven wives, in which case ,he is expected to live away from his parental home and work for his numerous wives. Another evil resulting from this custom is the undesirable increase of lifelong bachelors. The Urali contract alliance with the Ulladans and in rare instances with the Muthuvans. Window remarriage is not prohibited.
These sylvan deities are worshiped and propitiated by offerings and sacrifices. Special prayers are also offered to the manes of departed ancestors.
Customs and Ceremonies
The new-crop or the puttari is religiously observed by puja and feast. During the opening harvest they conduct puja, a hollow dry reed with pebbles in it serving as a bell. This puja is accompanied by a sumptuous feast amidst great rejoicing and revelry. The Urali is most punctilious in the performance of these ceremonies and would rather starve for some days than relinquish his cherished ceremonies. When one falls ill no doctor or medicine is resorted to, except charms and incantations. Men are sometimes supposed to be under the influence of ghosts in certain diseases (mental and nervous), and the supposed devil is exorcised by these mantrams and charms. The sorcerers are supposed to derive the divine afflatus by a period of apprenticeship under their forefathers who are believed to assume the anthropomorphic form of a maiden and teach the secret doctrine as a panacea for all ills.
The natal rites are rather tedious. During confinement the women is segregated to a secluded corner, in a hut bult for the purpose. Here she is lodged for a period of twelve days. Then for another shorted term of five days she is brought nearer home and located in a similar hut. She is considered impure for twenty days after childbirth, so much so, that she is not allowed to touch even the roof of the house. The tank in which she bathes is considered irremediably polluted. A special pool of water is designed for this purpose called pattu-vellam.TheUrali when they camp out, scrupulously avoid way –side tanks or pools, being afraid of its possible pollution in the past. They also consider the proximity of a pulaya polluting.
The husband observes pollution for three days on the birth of the first child. The wife’s relatives, however, have to observe five days pollution. On the eighteenth day after birth, elder member of the family is accorded the privilege of naming the child and boring its ear. The child, when able to walk safely on the ground, has the crown of its head converted into a kudumi(a tuft of hair).
The Urali bury their dead at a distance from their dwelling places. This is one of the chief distinctions between them and their namesakes of Madura and Trichinopoly, who burn their dead, Every relative is expected, as a last tribute to the dead, to throw a new cloth on the corpse. A shed is erected as a mark of respect to the deceased, within which are placed an offering of boiled rice, betel, nuts, and his chopping knife. After the lapse of seven years an offering of food and drink is served to the soul of the death pollution lasts for sixteen days.
Inheritance and occupation
The Urali are marumakkathayis. Agriculture and hunting chiefly occupy their attention. Agriculture is of a migratory nature and their huts, which they take from place to place in guest of fresh fields for cultivation, are called pantals.The intervals of agricultural labour are spent in catching birds for their food. They are adepts in catching elephants in which Government generally employ them. They are clever huntsmen and are deeply attached to their dogs. They are, like the Kanikkars,exempt from taxation ,but in return they render some assistance to government in keeping watch over the Government plantations, cardamom gardens &.They make excellent mats of reed.
Language and Education
They speak a kind of corrupt Malayalam, but those who have had the chance of moving in higher circles or of receiving education, speak a pure form of it. The name most common among women is kinnuki, and those men are kolampan, maniakken, etc. The initiative to educate these hill tribes seems to have originally fallen to the lot of missionaries. The late Rev. Henry Baken, one of the earliest of the C.M.S Missionaries of Kottayam (1818-1843), devoted his labours in these untrodden hilly tracts of North Travancore not without some reward. His attempts to open a school were attended with success, and after his retirement in 1843, the mantle fell upon his son (Rev. Henry Baker Junior) who maintained, not unsuccessfully, the school established by his father, for a period of five years. But the unfortunate death of this missionary brought the school to an untimely close. However, subsequent Christian philanthropists have taken up the work again and, as the result of it, there are now two schools at Mekkanam under their supervision and attended by a good number of boys. Many of the Urali can read and write.
The Urali are characterized by honesty, simplicity and straightforwardness in their dealings. They serve as good forest guide to strangers. They respect parental authority.
The latest return of the Census gives their number as 220.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES AMONG URALI TRIBES
This chapter of the proposed study revises three books: Edgar Thurston’s ‘Castes and Tribes Southern India’(1909), L.A Krishna Iyer’s ‘The Travancore Tribes and Castes’ Vol. III, (1941) and A. A. D Luiz’s ‘Tribes of Kerala’ (1962). This chapter mainly revises about how these three authors discussed about Urali Tribes’ Religious practices, Land use and settlement Pattern.
Edgar Thurston CIE (1855-1935) was a superintendent at the Madras Government Museum who donated to studies in the zoology, ethnology and botany of India and published works associated with his work at the museum. Thurston was educated in medicine and lectured in anatomy at the Madras Medical College while also holding his position at the museum. His early works were on numismatics and geology and this was followed later by his researches in anthropology and ethnography. He succeeded Frederick S. Mullaly as the superintendent of ethnography for the Madras Presidency.
Among other published works, he wrote the seven volumes of Castes and Tribes of Southern India, which was a part of the Ethnographic Survey of India project to which he was appointed in 1901 following the success of Herbert Hope Risley’s Ethnographic Survey of Bengal. Risley was a devotee to the theories of scientific racism. He was appointed as director of Ethnology in India and Thurston worked under this project to collect accurate anthropometric measurements.
Urali are spilt into seven nadus, which are in effect endogamous subdivisions. There are called after villages in the country inhabited by the caste, namely Vadaseri, Pilluru, Sengudi, Kadavangudi or Virali, Talakka, Paluvinji or Magali and Marundi. The members of the first three of the these nadus are called vadaseri Urali, and those of the other four Nattu-simai Uralis, Kunduva–nattu-tokkadus or Nandutindis. All of them will mess together. They say that the nadus(land) were originally intended to facilitate the decision of caste disputes, and they are still the unit of the self-government. Each nadu has a headman, who exercises supreme control over the villages included within it. The Urali also have a number of exogamous sept called karais by the Vadaseris and kaniyacchis by the Nattu-simais, which are called after the names of places. They are generally cultivators, but are said sometimes to be given to crime. . They put up huts in the vicinity of the cultivated areas, and use bamboo and reeds as materials. After leaving the old, and before putting up the new hut, they live for several days in caves or under trees.
Urali used their land mainly for agriculture; they cultivated various kinds of food- grains. They begin to fell forest trees in Dhanu (December-January), and seeds are sown by the end of matam (April-May).Others are sheep and cattle rear. Besides agriculture animal husbandry was another occupation.
Edward Thurston makes scanned references about Gods; however religious practices are described in detail. They worshipped mainly Sivan, Ayyappan and Devi. They celebrated the Sivarathri. On the Sivaratri night, sacrifices are offered to their family Gods and on the following day, all the men of the village go out hunting. They have a head shikari (huntsman), called kavettaikaran, who receives every animal which is killed, cuts off its head, and breaks its legs. The head is given to the man who killed the animal, and the rest is shared among the caste men. The Uralis worship a variety of minor deities,and sacrifice sheep and goats to Palrayan.They observe two anmal festivals,viz:-(a) Thai nomu.when the whole house is cleaned,and margosa(Melia Azadirachta) twigs and spikes of Achyranthes aspera are tied together ,and placed in front of the houses over the roof,or struck into the roof overhanding the enterence. A sumptuous repast is partaken of.This ceremonial takes place in the month Thali (December-January);(b) In the month Vyasi (march-April) a large trough is placed close to a well,and filled with a mixture of salt and water.The cattle,decorated with leaves and flowers, are brought, one by one, to the trough, and made to drink the salt water.
AAD Luiz’s book on the Tribes of Kerala is careful and interesting study of the tribes of Kerala and a valuable contribution regarding the customs and culture of a class of people, of whom very little is known to the world. So far as Kerala is concerned, A book of this kind has been a long felt need. The author discusses the origin and growth of social structure, religious ways, economic life and the institution of marriage of the aboriginals. In these days when steps are being taken to ‘enumerate’ the various tribes this publication will be of a positive value in assessing their needs and providing them help where it is actually required.
The religion of the tribes was animism, totemism and crude, polytheism, but due to the influence of Hinduism such ancient faiths and forms of worship have more or less displaced. Tribal society treats the supernatural with more fear than reverence, and is afraid of its powers. Their very religion and ceremonies consist in propitiating the gods to avert evil and ill-will. Very few pray for benefits. Tribes believe in the existence of the soul after death and in the rebirth of the good as humans, and others as animals. Their great aspiration is to control the evil spirits (bhoothams) and if possible even the deities. Heaven is always thought of and described as a beautiful place somewhere in the high skies with plenty to eat and drink. Regarding hell and its location they have no comments to offer. They worship Shata, Kali, Siva, Vishnu, Subramania, Ayyaapan, Sylvan deities, Malavazhies, Mariamma, Kannimars and sprits of ancestors. Kanikkars, Paniyans, Koragas and Karimpalansconsider the spirits of ancestors as their domestic gods. They have numerous grama devatas,and most of them are connected with localities. Kali (Durga) a particularly malignant and revengeful goddess, and hermaphrodite deities are popular.Kannikaras invoke Saga Agastya and other Sage Valmiki in their rituals. Some tribes, especially the Muthuvans, Uralies and Koragas worship the sun. Many a god is known by the name of the location of a tribal settlement. Their faith is strong and practical, but very little is based on hope. Many groups believe that their gods could be made to intervene in their affairs by divination. Diviners run into a trance (frenzy) and disclose causes for the displeasure of the gods, and suggest methods for appeasing them. While in a trance they are believed to have divine inspiration. Oracles are popular and held in esteem. Animism as practiced by the tribes incorporates the belief in a soul and advocates the worship of inanimate objects. Caves, rocks, trees and many other objects are believed to have supernatural powers, and are worshipped even now by limited numbers. Definitely it is the object itself that is worshipped. It has to be mentioned that the worship of deities is contrary to animistic beliefs. Primitive ‘Meriah’ sacrifice has been replaced by the slaughter of animals, and ‘Hcok swinging’ of a human corpse has been substituted with dolls. Kurumbas, Irulars, Paniyans and many others perform live sacrifice, and what is offered is eaten after the ceremony. After a hut the heart and liver of the find is sliced and offered to the hunting deities. It is surprising that women who hunt, work and wander with men are treated as unclean, and prevented from participating in religious ceremonies. All groups have a Pujari (priest), a Mantravadi (magician), and a Kaniyan (astrologer). Kanikkars and Uralies call them Plathies.
Urali live in wild life infested areas and their settlements can be identified by the Madoms (tree or pile huts) in addition to the ones on the ground and the presence of Dolmens erroneously described as treasure-troves. The Ambukallu or the flat stone resting on the top of vertical supports indicates the exact location of the grave of an ancestor. They live in settlements of four to six huts. The structure on the ground is made of bamboo, reeds and branches and is used during the day. The stronger and picturesque construction is on the top of a strong tree with a ladder leading to it. This is chiefly the sleeping apartments, and keeps them safe from being trampled by the wandering elephants. They keep the interior, and surroundings of their huts clean. Most of them use enamel and brass utensils and dried gourd containers for storing honey and water. Headmen are called Kani or Velan and the office descends from father to son. In case there is no son or he proves to being competent the nephew succeeds. Uralis respects their headman but no contribution is made for his maintence.The Velan of Arakulam was reputed to be conversant with various forms of black magic. Some claim to know the Odi cult and mantrams. They are respected and their decisions and arbitrations are accepted, even though the primitive form of devotion, respect and the conception of their infallibility has disappeared. At present the headman presides over the council (Panchayat) of elders which take decisions. He is consulted before finalizing marriage arrangements, and is expected to attend marriages and funerals. The primitive custom of contributions of the headman and his wife has disappeared, but thatching the hut of the headman is done by some tribes even now.
Homes (huts) of tribes known as Chelas, Chittaries, Pathies,and Kudies are made of bamboo and thatched with leaves, straw or grass. They also live in caves, under overhanging rocks, in pits in the ground, and in the hollows of big trees. The floor of the huts is often level with the ground. Windows usually consist of holes in the sides. Ural is who those living and cultivate in wild life infested areas have Macahans (pile dwellings), and Madoms (huts on high trees).
Agriculture is considered as the main occupation of the Urali tribes. They used land mainly for cultivation of agricultural products. They cultivate rice, cholam, tapioca, ginger, cardamom and other consumable products as conditions permit. Group farming was prevailed among Urali, they seldom venture on independent cultivation. All the others were at one time engaged in Ponam (shifting) cultivation, and the justification for a shift was to have better harvest. In the absence of impediments they moved regularity every year, and never return to the same spot before the lapse of six years.
L.A Krishna lyer
L.A Krishna lyer, son of L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer, was an officer in the Forest Administration of Travancore, southernmost of Indian states. In 1937 he was detailed by the state government to compile the same kind of ethnographic survey for Travancore that his father had made for the native states of Cochin and Mysore. The first volume appeared in 1938. Some of the materials in them, based on the author’s long experience as a forest ranger, have been published previously as periodical articles or as contributions to the ethnographic notes in the 1931 Census of Travancore. The work is in the tradition of the regional Tribes and Castes series which now affords information on most of the political divisions of the country.
The Uralies make offerings to ancestors in January. A pongal is offered by the side of clothes, beads, rings,and bangles. Clothes are to propitiate male ancestors, and bangles and beads, female ancestors. The prayer is to effect, “Oh parents, grandparents and great grandparents, protect us. We shall propitiate you every year.” Westermarck defines religion as “a belief in, and a respectable attitude towards, a supernatural being on whom man feels dependent, and to whose will he makes an appeal in his worship.” With primitive man, “religion is a part of his custom. It is his whole custom.”The religion of the primitive tribes of Travancore may be described as a system of animism or spiritualism, and their attitude to the supernatural is one of reverential fear in the presence of certain mysterious supernatural powers and being who must be propitiated or conciliated to avert ill-will. The hill tribes of Travancore have a hierarchy of deities and spirits, the sun, the ancestor spirits, village deities and spirits, hunting deities and tramp spirits. The worship of the sun is confined to the Muthuvans,the ,the Urali, and the Kanikkar. The Urali recognize the sun as the creator of the universe and the father of all souls. Ancestor worship is one of the great branches of mankind. According to Tyler, the dead ancestor; now passed as deity, goes on protecting his family and receiving suit from them as of old. Ancestors are therefore considered as kindly patron spirits, at least to their own kinsfolk and worshippers. Ancestor worship is prevalent among most of the primitive tribes of Travancore. A few offering of milk, rice, toddy, and ghee are made.
Natural shelters, namely caverns, overhanging rocks, holes in the ground, and hollow trunks may have been the abode of primitive man. The rigidity of the village organization of the primitive tribes is due to their long isolation, their narrow outlook on life, and close inter-marriage for countless generations. They generally live in small groups of the families called kudi(village).Each village is even now an independent unit, and consists of an average of ten to fifteen families bound together by the idea of self-protection. The primitive tribes of Travancore live in the region of the bamboo and the reed. Uralis have a better type of dwelling. The huts are wide apart in some places. Bamboo forms the chief building material. The Urali huts are isolated. Each man has a tree houses which is about 50 feet above ground. They spend their nights in it for fear of elephants. Each hamlet has a common tree-houses reserved for women in menses. There is a common tree-house as granary. The Urali have a headman called Kanikkaran for a group of hamlets. Each hamlet has a plathi or medicine-man that is responsible for the good conduct of the men there in. When disputes arise, the plathi informs the Kanikkaran, who presides over the meeting of the village council and settles the disputes. No fine inflicted on the delinquents.
They used land for agriculture. They sway of customs looks more powerful among people in the earlier stages of culture. The Urali lead a pure life during the period of early agricultural operations from December to April. The migratory habits of the jungle tribes still continous among the Urali. 
Change in the life of human beings is often assessed on the basis of his sense of the world around and the nature of the depth his knowledge. People are often classified as savage or modern or as rational or irrational in a social setup. When we trace the pages of history, it is found that what is deputed as savage and old, has withstood the acid test of time. Even in the post-modern period efforts are very much alive to sustain them. It is quite motivating to examine the lives of Uralis in the past and the present as well.
Uralis lived in forest. Their ancestors cleared the forest, tilled the land and cultivated many things. Agriculture was their chief occupation and still is in addition they collect and sell forest resources. They also go for day labour. They cultivate tapioca, yam, elephant foot yam, plant ,bitter gourd, lady’s finger, bottle gourd, pepper, coffee, plants and coconut .They were much skilled in the collection and extraction of honey. They usually extract honey from small and big bees. They also make baskets and sieves to grain out of a type bamboo commonly known as “Etta”.
Traditionally Uralis were Hindus. Their Important deities were Sastha, Ayappan and Bhagavathi. Moreover they worship their ancestors .They have a separate temple for themselves which is devoted to Devi. It is a temple of great legacy .They have unique rituals ,belief and art forms of their own .But as time passed ,it has become part of history .Owing to too lack of proper care ,support and promotion ,most of it has gone down to oblivion .But by with slow ling the acid test of time some of their rituals are still alive .The notable among them are Urali tullal, meenabharani , karutha vavu . Urali tullal is a religious practice. It is an aggressive dance to place the favourite deity. It is a rural and folkdance form. Vary of them it as solo dance during tullal the dancer chants certain sounds. When the dancer reaches peak of ecstasy. he or she become almost unconscious.
Bhalasruthy. It is also known as uraliparayuka. It is almost similar to the tullal of an oracle or velichappad. In the past, it was conducted only occasionally. Nowadays it has almost become extinct among the uralis clan. The chief reason is that the new generation in almost indifferent to their rituals. Yet another reason is the considerable decrease in the number of Urali where they used to exist.
‘Kozhiuettu’ was a traditional ritual which is no longer followed by Uralis uessenthy. At the time of their ancestors, it was one of the most fruitful and popular offerings to the deity. For the gratification and personal prayers it was offered to the deity. This ranges from the cause of diseases to the materialising of personal prayers it was offered to the deity. This ranges from the cause of diseases to the materialising of personal dreams. In gratitude of the fulfilment of prayers, cocks and hens offered to the temples .It was offered as Kuruthi at the time of worship. It was a great contentment to the believers.
At the time of new moon –popularly known as Karutha vavu. They offer worship to the departed souls. They conduct special pooja and offer worship in temples. They also leave a sumptuous meal for the departed souls with delicious dishes including plantain and jaggers, most of this dishes cooked directly on the flames. This is a unique ritual of Uralis which is still practised.
The clan Uralis still follow the tradition of muppans. The head of a local clan is commonly called Muppan. They believe that this title was awarded by the Poonjar royal family. Muppan title is traditionally limited to the same family handed down from one generation to the other. The eldest son of a Muppan becomes the heir of the title Muppan and his wife was revered by the whole community, their word is final and their orders are always obeyed.
Now days their houses roofed with asbestos or tin sheets. In the past, houses are mostly thatched. Most of the resources were collected from the forest. Besmeared their homes with pastes of soil or clay. But they didn’t use crowding in the process. They lived together in colonies which is traditionally knows as URALIKUDI. In the modern terminology it is “scheduled tribe colony “.This change of names is to facilitate the implementation of projects like “integrated tribal development programme”. This also facilitates the utilization of plan funds from the local self Governments and the conduct of ‘Grammasabha’
It is believed that the Uralis existed here since the time of Poonjar royal clan. In the past they lived in the dense forests. A lot of myths were associated with their transition from the forest to the current area. Some believe that they came and spread through the developments of the Poonjar royal family. In order to obtain forest resources, the king gave them some lands to settle consequently they established and maintain their clan there. Some others believe that they have to quit the forest as more people involved the forest area for agriculture.
It is found that there is no change in life, beliefs, and rituals of Uralis in the sweep of time. This has become a very vital part of their very existence. It has become part and parcel of their social, religious, agricultural and cultural living. They were much conscious not to let it became rusty. Instead, they polish it by their regular practices of tradition.
Since time immemorial each and every local clan has established their identity and self by closely associating themselves with nature and organisms around by fighting a hard battle with all the adversity they confront. Their effort is still continuous and it is found that ‘self’ is not eclipsed by the process of modernisation.
Seen from an impersonal perspective, it is estimated in the postmodern era, most of the tribal groups in Kerala were struggling load to sustain their ‘self’ and identity which is attained by their struggle of over many years. It is real erases that confront them. The way of living in much culture is classified based on their self esteem and sense of individuality and self. It is their sense of self and identity that uniquely classifies commercially from the community. Unfortunately, it is this uniqueness of the tribal’s that is viewed as savage and irrational by the modern society. This attitude is to be criticized and discharged. It is crystal clear that the perspective and experience of the tribal group will definitely differ from that of the modern outer world. It is this It is this difference that makes them what they are.
Before the advancement of modern service education and culture, the tribal community has seen, comprehended, interpreted and rule the world around in the own indigenous and unique way. It shows that the difference perspective is not something new or novel, but dated much back to the past.
The uprooting of tribal communities in India has been clearly mapped in the cultural map of India. But quite ironically monopoly resets with perspective and thought patters of modern science in India and the world around as well. The modern view is the out came of the explosive and boom of science and technology in Europe in the 17th and18th centuries. But it never takes into consideration the internal skills the being of soul and the many extensions of a human life. Therefore, modern perspective is quite insufficient to read and interpret the bond of man and nature and the resultant emerging of self and identity using the methodology of modern science.
Modernization is in fact an offspring of imperial colonization. The traditional and the modern fight one another and drainage of self and identity. All the studies in the tribal community are in fact a deliberate or international recognition of the uniqueness of the tribal class which makes them different from the modern community.
The change in the life style of Uralis, owing modernisation, is very often enforced. This is exemplified when they quit the traditional habitat ‘forest’ to become a tenant in the modern society as a result; they lost their close association with nature and its resources. With the breaking of this bond, it is their self that perhaps their heritage, but recently they have fought with tooth and nail to enliven and regain their cost self and glory.
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Sahu Chaturbhuj, Tribal cultural and identity, published by Prabhat Kumar Sharma for Sarup and Sons Delhi,p.3
 Ibid p.4
 Ibid p:6
 L.P Vidyarthi, Tribal Development and its administration(ed),published by Ashok kumar concept publishing company, 1981, page-47
 New encyclopedia Britanica,vol.10,page:115
AtalYogesh,sociology and social anthropology in India (ed)publisged by dorlingkindersley(India)2009.
SahuChaturbhuj,Tribal cultural and identity, published by prabhat Kumar sharma for sarup and sons Delhi,p.6
 Joy jobin,Resettelment issues: A case study of Malavedan of Eruthvapuzha in Kottayam,(M.A dissertation),2012
 Thurston Edgar, Castes and Tribes of Sothern india,Volume-VII,asian educational services,Newdelhi,1909
A. Sreedhara Menon. A Survey of Kerala History, page-54-55
 Travancore Census Report for 1901,Pp-350
 V., Nagam Aiya, Travancore State Manual, Volume -II, Gazetteers department, Government of Kerala , Pp-413
 Ibid Pp-414
 Ibid Pp-415
 Ibid Pp-416
 Edward thurstan,castes and tribes in southern india,Vol-VII, published by Asian educational service,newdelhi,1909,page-252
 Edward thurstian,some marriage customs in southern india,page-203
 Edward thurstian,castes and tribes in southern india,Vol-VII, published by Asian educational service,newdelhi,1909,page-247
 Ibid page-251
 Ibid Pp-207
A A D Luiz, Tribes of kerala,1961,page-8
 L.A Krishna iyer, Travancore tribes and castes ,Volume III,1940,page-136
 Ibid ,page-123
 Ibid Pp-150
Prepared by Nimmy Thomas